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All the pros and cons of contraceptive methods

June 29 2007

To date, there are many methods of contraception. In any case, you should choose based on the advice of your gynecologist.

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We examine the pros and cons of the main methods.

Intrauterine device (IUD) - a small plastic device that is introduced into the uterus, preventing the movement of sperm to the egg and fertilize it. Navy enters and removes a physician during a simple procedure.

Pros: works 5-10 years depending on the type of IUD, the application of the method is not associated with sexual intercourse, can be set during or immediately after menstruation, abortions in the first trimester of pregnancy, in the absence of infection or some kind of abortion complications and immediately after birth.

Cons: menstruation may become more abundant and painful, may be spotting between periods, in the presence of sexually transmitted infections increases the risk of developing inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, and in some cases there may be loss of the Navy of the uterus.

Contraindications: pregnancy, more than one sexual partner; inflammatory disease of the cervix or the pelvic organs, including infections, sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal bleeding of unknown origin cancer of genital organs, severe anemia (hemoglobin> 90 g / l), diseases that cause decline immunity.

It's time to see a doctor if: menses has not come for 4-6 weeks after IUD insertion; suspect they are pregnant, menstruating more profuse or prolonged than usual, there were severe abdominal pain, pain and bleeding occur during sex, there are signs of infection (unusual vaginal discharge, chills, fever);

Injecting equipment Depo-Provera (depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate) contains a synthetic hormone similar to natural progesterone. One injection every three months to prevent ovulation. Should make it a doctor or nurse, and for the first injection is important to choose the right moment: in the first seven days after the onset of menstruation, immediately after the abortion, immediately after birth if the woman is not breastfeeding, or within six weeks if the feeds.

Pros: use is not associated with sexual intercourse, reduces blood loss during menstruation, which is especially important for women suffering from anemia, can be used immediately after abortion or delivery (if the woman is not breastfeeding), and during the breastfeeding period (six weeks after childbirth), reduces the risk of endometrial cancer, inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs and ectopic pregnancy.

Cons: in the first few months after the injection of possible bleeding between menstrual periods, every third woman stops menstruating (amenorrhea) that is not dangerous and does not lead to permanent infertility, but it is important to consult with your doctor to rule out pregnancy may increase body weight, possibly headaches after the cessation of menstruation and injectable fertility returned only after 6-9 months.

Contraindicationsyou suspect that you may be pregnant, breast cancer, including patients treated, vaginal bleeding of unknown origin, viral hepatitis, or liver tumor, diabetes, severe form.

It's time to see a doctor if: there were severe headaches, you have plenty of vaginal bleeding you are experiencing severe abdominal pain, injection site there was pain or inflammation, you have not started menstruating after several months of regular cycles because it may indicate a pregnancy.

Female sterilization - a voluntary surgery (laparoscopy or mini-laparotomy), during which cross or block the fallopian tubes, so that sperm can not penetrate the egg and fertilize it. Suitable only for women who are confident that they will never want to have kids.

Plus: one operation provides contraception for life.

Cons: an irreversible method, there is little likelihood of postoperative complications after surgery for several days is possible soreness.

Contraindicated: women who think they still want to have children with suspected pregnancy, inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, blood clotting problems.

Combined oral contraceptives. Birth control pills contain a small amount of hormones in their effect similar to female hormones - estrogen and progesterone to suppress ovulation and thicken cervical mucus, preventing the penetration of sperm into the uterus.

The first pill to be taken on the first day of menstruation or immediately after an abortion, and then - one day at one and the same time. Some packages contain 28 tablets, while others - 21. When finished package of 28 tablets a day should disclose the following and continue to receive. If the package is designed for 21 days, then, before you open the next, you need to make a break of 7 days.

If you forget to take a pill, take it as soon as you remember it, even if you drink two a day. If you miss two or more pills, you have to take two tablets daily, while again not enter the chart at the same time during the week to abstain from sex or using condoms safe side. If the expected menstruation did not come to ask your gynecologist to make sure that you are not pregnant.

Pros: safety, are not associated with sexual intercourse, in the absence of evidence can take as much time as you like yourself, if you decide to get pregnant, then finishing his packing to finish, you can stop taking the pills and fertility is restored; pills can be used immediately after abortion, menstruation becomes more regular, less abundant and less painful, reduces the risk of anemia, ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer, benign breast disease, ectopic pregnancy, inflammatory disorders of pelvic organs.

Less: sometimes there are side effects that do no harm and usually decrease or disappear in a few months of taking pills. This may be a slight nausea, slight weight gain, headaches and dizziness, breast tenderness, spotting between periods.

Contraindications: suspected pregnancy breast feeding, vaginal bleeding, unexplained origin, smoking after 35 years, hypertension (with blood pressure above 160/90 mm Hg. Art.) Cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, stroke, seizures, pain in the heart, angina); breast cancer, including cured, liver disease or gall bladder in the acute stage; migraine.

Consult your doctor if you have: severe abdominal pain, severe chest pain and shortness of breath, severe headaches with visual impairment and / or speech, severe pain in his legs.

Male sterilization (vasectomy). Intersect ejaculatory ducts.

Plus: an inexpensive, simple and reliable method of contraception that does not require special equipment and general anesthesia.

Less: an irreversible method, so it is important that the man was adamant that does not want to have children in the future.

Contraindications: infection, sexually transmitted infections, inguinal hernia, severe diabetes.

Norplant - hormone capsules, which sewed under the skin for five years. Suppresses ovulation, causing a temporary menopause (cessation of menstruation).

Pros: works for five years, which is convenient for women who are not planning a pregnancy in the next few years, do not have control pills.

Cons: causes a significant (up to 50% of initial body weight), weight gain, menopause, though temporary, comes with all the unpleasant signs: sweating, hot flashes, etc. to get pregnant before the expiration of the 5-year term, must be deleted capsules, and then wait for 6-12 months restoring fertility.

Contraindications are the same as for combined oral contraceptives.

Condom - a thin pouch of latex, vinyl or natural products that fits over the penis is erect, prevents sperm from entering the vagina during intercourse, thereby protecting against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.

Pros: effective if properly use it in every sexual act, to purchase not need a prescription or medical examination, has no side effects, except for those rare occasions when someone has a partner developed a latex allergy, the only tool that not only prevents unwanted pregnancies, but also significantly reduces the chance of contracting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.

Cons: delayed or damaged condoms are often torn during sexual intercourse. If this happened within 72 hours, contact your gynecologist for emergency contraception, some couples complain about the alleviation of sexual sensation.

Use a condom correctly:

- During each sexual intercourse, use a new condom. It is designed for one application, do not use it again.

- Move the foreskin of the penis in a state of erection. Put the condom on the penis. Hold the rim of the condom up and rolling bezel, pull the condom on the penis. This must be done prior to sexual intercourse.

- To prevent leakage of semen during injection of the penis from the vagina hold the rim of the condom.

- Do not use lubricants that contain vegetable or synthetic oils, because they destroy the condom.

- Do not use a condom if the package is damaged when it was dry lubricant or become sticky to the touch.

Coitus interruptus. Theoretically, if you withdraw the penis from the vagina before ejaculation, the sperm did not penetrate into the uterus and the pregnancy will not occur.But in reality, this method often fails because the sperm penetration even in the vulva women can cause pregnancy.

Plus: free method that can be used in any situation.

Less: distracting from the process and in constant use may lead to sexual disorders in men and women.

Spermicides - Chemical contraceptive (in the form of creams, suppositories, foams, jellies and tablets), which is inserted deep into the vagina using a special applicator before intercourse, and 10-15 minutes to begin to act: for a few seconds to destroy the sperm. This "aggressiveness" is needed, because the sperm get into the cervical canal after a few seconds after ejaculation, and after 90 seconds the fastest of them reach the fallopian tubes.

To improve the effectiveness of spermicides, they recommend using in conjunction with barrier methods (condom, cap). Every sexual act requires a new dose of spermicides, and then you can not douche for 6-8 hours. Applicator after use to wash with soap and water.

Pros: reduces the risk of STIs, but do not exclude it, or you can use in conjunction with physiological methods.

Cons: there are within an hour after injection, then we need a new dose, do not eliminate the fear of unwanted pregnancy due to its low efficiency, in the case of pregnancy, have harmful effects on the fetus, possibly an allergic reaction, itching and burning in the vulva .

Physiological method. A woman is able to conceive within six days of each menstrual cycle. To prevent pregnancy at this time should refrain from sexual intercourse. To calculate the "dangerous days", you need every day to monitor the state of cervical mucus and rectal temperature. The appearance of clear mucous discharge indicates a potential ability to conceive.

In addition, you need every day, excluding days of menstruation, measured rectally (in the anus) temperature. And this should be done in the same time (from 6 to 8 am), not getting out of bed, and not one month, but always, because no one woman is never absolutely regular cycle.

Typically, the rectal temperature kept at around 36,4-36,6. On the day of ovulation, it rises up to 37-37,2 and kept at this level, even 12-14 days, going down 1-2 days before menses. Some women even at the time of ovulation the temperature does not rise above 37, so the indication that it occurred, is considered the temperature rise per day, not less than 0.4 degrees.

Thermometer readings best record, then by painting a few months you will be able to calculate approximately when to expect ovulation. Must be protected for three days before ovulation and three days later. Effectiveness of the method can be guaranteed only under the condition that you carefully follow all the rules!

Plus: no interference in the body and, consequently, any adverse events.

Cons: need day to measure rectal temperature, monitor the condition of the mucous secretions from the cervix throughout the menstrual cycle and keep regular records, during the retreat from the rules of high risk pregnancy, and during the "dangerous" days should abstain from sex or protect themselves by using condoms , diaphragms, etc.

It is not recommendedwith the menstrual cycle and after childbirth to restore regular menstrual cycle after abortion up until you learn to accurately identify dangerous days, and if abstinence from sexual intercourse during a certain period is a problem, with no regular sexual partner.

About effective methods of contraception adopted judged by the Pearl index. So called a gynecologist who invented it. The index is the number of conceptions during the year in 100 women using a particular method of contraception. Than the index lower, the better the protection.

Contraceptive method Pearl Index

Intrauterine devices - 0,1
Male sterilization - 0,15
Female sterilization - 0,4
Oral contraceptives - less than 0,5
Intrauterine device - 1
Condom - 12
Coitus interruptus - 19
Spermicides - 21
Physiological method ("safe days") - 24
Without contraception - 85

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