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Tretyakov Gallery: 150 years to go - do not cross a field

May 26 2006
15:14

In May 2006, the State Tretyakov Gallery celebrates its 150-year anniversary. Its founder - Moscow merchant, philanthropist, collector and promoter of Russian art school - Pavel Tretyakov, wanted to create the first public museum of Russian art and fully perform this task. At the Tretyakov Gallery is truly a unique status: earning national recognition, it became a national symbol of Russia. Passing over the past hundred and fifty years long way from a private collection to the largest museum in the world level, having absorbed the best of fine art created by local, State Tretyakov Gallery has become an integral part of world culture.

Foundation day Tretyakov Gallery is traditionally considered May 22 a new style or 10 - the old way. This is the date - May 10, 1856 "- is on is stored in the Department of Manuscripts Galleries receipt for an artist V. Khudyakov deposit for the painting" Skirmish with Finnish Smugglers ".

Gathering was to Pavel Tretyakov affair of a lifetime. By the end of 1880 his collection of paintings acquired the status of this museum, a private in origin, social in nature, the museum free and open source for nearly all of the days for everyone, without distinction of race and rank. August 31 (old style) 1892 Tretyakov appealed to the Moscow City Duma with a proposal to take over from him as a gift to an art gallery. It included 1,287 paintings, 518 drawings and 9 sculptures by Russian artists XVIII-XIX centuries. The Moscow City Duma accepted with gratitude the invaluable gift, and Pavel Tretyakov was appointed trustee of her life. In 1896 he was awarded an honorary citizen of Moscow.

Describing the activities in 1916 Tretyakov, Alexander Benois wrote: "... Tretyakov was not a" typical collector, he was not sybarite, surrounded himself with a nice looking things, and it was in the full sense of some ascetic who voluntarily conferred on a very heavy duty and carried it away is not a pleasant feeling of satisfaction whims. Tretyakov has set itself a strict collection of Russian paintings challenge of life, and "dear to his heart" paintings cleaned the walls of his mansion, not "enjoyed" it, as he gathered the story "of Russian painting, trying to give their purchases and the possibility of the creation of the story"

Every major museum has its spare funds - reservists. Zapasnik - a museum reserve, which are taken from works for exhibitions, to update the permanent exhibition, for research, expertise, etc. Stores practically inaccessible to the general public and therefore cause an increased interest - and what is hidden behind the massive walls of the depository? View reservists for everyone - it is impossible, but to publish, and show the public the product stored there - it is necessary, since this is an important part of cultural heritage.

Project in New Manege, prepared at the initiative of the Moscow Government employees Tretyakov Gallery - the first exhibition of its kind in decades. It consists of more than 120 works of painting and sculpture of the XVIII-XX centuries. In essence, it is like a small museum that reflects many trends of domestic art for two and a half centuries. But the main goal of the exhibition is not to replicate in miniature the permanent exhibition of the Tretyakov Gallery, and to draw visitors' attention to works fine, but rarely show, half-forgotten, if not entirely unknown.

The exhibition at the New Manege everyone can discover something new, whether it works by famous artists of the XVIII and early XIX century - F. Rokotov, D. Levitsky, V. Borovikovsky, S. Shchedrin, O. Kiprensky, V. Tropinin , K. Brullov, or little-known - P. Barbier, M. Mokhov, A. and H. Zlatova Chernetsova.The same can be said about the painting of the second half of the XIX and early XX century. Few saw "Portrait of Alexander II» Makovsky or recall of M. Petrova "Pansionerki", "bride" N. Nevreva, "Children of the piano" N.Bogdanova-Belsky. Rarely appear, even at shows unique works of I. Grabar, "The Lady with the Dog," Pasternak "Congratulations," Brodsky "Portrait OD Talalaeva" and "Easter Still Life" by S. Zhukovsky, or painting "Ballet washroom" Z. Serebryakova.

Excellent features paintings of the first half of XX century. There is practically no work "cool" socialist realism. The names of acquaintances, but the work "fresh", unusual and very good - Kuznetsov "Javanese dancer, K.Petrov-Vodkin" candle and a decanter, B. Kustodiev "Autumn in the province, F. BOGORODSKII" Italian, carrying stones . Also, Yu Pimenov, A. Shevchenko, P. Williams, A. Osmerkin and many others.

Especially interesting is a small, consisting of 20 exhibits section of Russian sculpture XVIII - early XX century. It includes little-known sculptors (for example, worked in Russia in the XVIII century Italian master of the B. Kavacheppi) and famous - a genre painter M. Chizhov (Rezvushka "and" Mother, child learning to read and write), animal painter and sculptor A. Aubert H . Andreev, presented at the "marvelous painted majolica and terracotta.

One of the central events of the anniversary program - the project "Museums of Russia congratulated the Tretyakov Gallery" - consists of two distinct parts.

In the permanent exhibition at the Tretyakov Gallery Lavrushinskiy Lane will include 11 works from the collections of major museums in Moscow and St. Petersburg. This will be the masterpieces of world-class wrist Dmitry Levitsky, Bryullov, Ilya Repin, Valentin Serov of the State Russian Museum, the rare examples of painting "Peter's time" from the State Hermitage Museum and Moscow's private collection Golitsyn product of the State Historical Museum. Such a situation is truly unique. Typically, the product of one author from various museums "meet" each other only in temporary exhibitions. The inclusion of high work in progress Tretyakov Gallery exhibition provides an extraordinary opportunity to more fully assess the creativity of an artist, other eyes to look at familiar works from the Tretyakov collection in a new context. You will see "Portrait of EI Nelidova" (1773), the future mistress of Paul I, a brush Dmitry Levitsky, part of a series of portraits smolnyanok (graduates Smolny Institute of noble maidens), written Bryullov luxurious grand "Portrait of His Serene Highness Princess Y. Saltykov (c. 1841), as well as other outstanding works of Russian painting.

Another part of the project is the exhibition "Museums of Russia congratulated the Tretyakov Gallery. The building on the Crimean Val presents works from the collections of more than 30 museums, or taking part in many years declared federal project, the Tretyakov Gallery "Golden Map of Russia" award in 2004, the RF State Prize in literature and art.

The exposition will be more than 100 works of iconography, painting and sculpture, including 18 works acquired by PM Tretyakov, or once were in the meeting of the State Tretyakov Gallery. These exhibits are supplemented collections of regional museums in the period of active museum construction 1920-1930's, when, through the State Museum Fund reallocated works of art from the central museums.

Nonrandom relationship exhibits many of the anniversary of the project with the history of the Tretyakov Gallery. In the salvation of art collections and accounting Tambov province participated employees of the Moscow museum. Visitors can see the two open their portrait painted by F. Rokotov the second half of 1760-ies from the Tambov gallery.

A number of items directly related to the personality of the founder of the Tretyakov Gallery. Painting AKavrasova "Caves Monastery near Nizhny Novgorod (1871) was acquired by Tretyakov immediately after its creation and for a long time to decorate his office. Portraits of writers Gogol (FA Moller, 1840) and Pysems'kogo (VG Perov, 1879) (both from Ivanovo Museum) once belonged to the gallery "of persons dear nation", which gathered Pavel Tretyakov.

Many works of Russian avant-garde were also transferred to the collections of regional museums in the Tretyakov Gallery. Among them - the Cubo-Futurist painting Malevich "Life in a big hotel" (1913-14), "Picturesque architectonics" LS Popova (1917?).

All museums partner gladly agreed to take part in large-scale commemorative exhibition and provide the best, landmark works from their collections for display at the Tretyakov Gallery in its 150 year anniversary.

Unique opportunity to see the most complete form of the so-called "Passion" Nikolai Ge appeared the visitors the Tretyakov Gallery in Lavrushinskiy lane. In addition to residing in the exhibition of masterpieces, "What is truth?" (1890) and "Golgotha" (1893), in the hall works Kye posted his picture of "conscience. Judas (1891) of the funds and the State Tretyakov Gallery - unprecedented in the history of the Gallery - "The Crucifixion" (1892) from the Museum d'Orsay, Paris.

Grand in size and emotional impact of the canvas of the outstanding Russian artist Nikolay Gay (1831-1894) brought together the works of French art, presented at the exhibition "Masterpieces of the Orsay Museum" on the Crimean Val.

Tetsunori Kavanagh students Graduate School of Landscape Architecture and Design, Moscow Architectural Institute prepared as a greeting employees, visitors anniversary, descendants of Pavel Tretyakov special event: May 22, before the central gate of the gallery will create a festive three-dimensional composition - a unique bouquet of flowering branches plants. This is - a kind of laying flowers to the monument of Pavel Tretyakov. Such an offering is traditional for the Japanese culture that emphasized T. Kavanagh. Presentation of the project is complete creation of a "family photo" on the background of the facade THG.

Also, in honor of the anniversary medal produced by the model AI Rukavishnikova, Central Bank of Russia issued a commemorative coin dedicated to the 150 th anniversary of the Tretyakov Gallery.

Anniversary of the Tretyakov Gallery, the main museum of Russian art, will undoubtedly become a central cultural event in the life of Russia and its capital - Moscow.

Oleg Adamowicz

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