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Sergey Radonezhsky - Abbot of the Russian land

October 8 2008

Two hours ago, at the Trinity-Sergius Lavra in Sergiev Posad celebration will end with worship, which made Patriarch Alexy II. Pray in the created by the great Russian ascetic of Saint Sergius monastery Radonezhskiy a day of repose (repose), "abbot of the Russian land" has gathered more than 3000 people.

After serving in the Episcopal Cathedral of the Assumption was made public prayer at the cathedral square in Kiev. Then, by tradition the patriarch addressed the audience with a welcoming speech from the balcony of the Patriarchal chambers.

Repose of St. Sergius of Radonezh, All Russia miracle worker of the Russian Orthodox Church Moscow Patriarchate said on October 8 (25 September in the Julian calendar). Sergey Radonezhsky - founder of the Trinity Monastery near Moscow (now Trinity-Sergius Lavra in Sergiev Posad), a monk of the Moscow church in those years was under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the transmitter of monasticism in Northern Russia, holy and reverend - is revered greatest devotee and patron of the Russian land. His memory is celebrated twice a year: July 5 (July 18, NS) - discover the relics, September 25 (October 8, NS) - Repose.

In the literature are called multiple dates of birth Sergius: from 3 May 1314 to August 25, 1322 The future saint was born in the village Varnita (near Rostov the Great), the son of Cyril Boyar and his wife, Mary, and in baptism was given the name Bartholomew. After the destruction of the father as a result of restraint Rostov Ivan I Kalita, suppressing the insurrection there antiordynskoe, about 1328 the family had to move to Radonezh Moscow principality.

When young Bartholomew was seven years old, he was sent to learn to read, along with his elder brother Stephen and a younger Peter. Despite the fact that Bartholomew worked long hours with a teacher, he, unlike his brothers, substantially behind in training and prayed that God instructed and to instruct him. This important episode in the life of the saint is devoted to painting Nesterov (1890, Tretyakov Gallery), written on the subject, taken by an artist from the ancient Lives of St. Sergius, "compiled by his disciple Epiphanius the Wise. Once, when Bartholomew was searching for missing the foals, he saw under a tree in a field of a monk, a holy elder, "and svetolepna angelovidna" diligently with tears to pray. The elder looked at the Bartholomew and the sight inside their eyes, before him the vessel, chosen by the Holy Spirit, and asked him what he seeks. Bartholomew replied that he did not possess the diploma, which is clouding his mind and asked the monk to pray for him. Elder, created a prayer, took a particle of communion bread and gave it unto a young man with the words: "Take this, and snesh, behold you give a sign of God's grace and mind Holy Scripture." And when the boy ate prosphora, the elder said to him: "On literacy, child, no sorrow: Otsego day the Lord will grant Tee literacy to be able to zelo good." That is what happened.

After marriage, the eldest son Stephen grown old's parents took his monastic vows and lived in Khotkovo Pokrovsky monastery. And some time later a monk of the monastery and became a widower Stephen. After his parents died in Khotkovo-Pokrovsky Monastery as a novice and went to Bartholomew.

Striving for "the strictest monastic, to pustynnozhitiyu, Bartholomew did not stay in the monastery and by persuading Stephen, with him founded the desert on the river bank Konchury, on a hill in the middle of a deaf Makovec Radonezh boron, where and built (around 1335) a small wooden church in the name Holy Trinity, on the spot where now stands the cathedral church - also in the name of the Holy Trinity.particle. It is for the Trinity Cathedral was later written by Saint Andrew Rublev genius icon "Old Testament Trinity."

Unable to withstand the very harsh and ascetic lifestyle, Stephen soon left for Moscow's Monastery of the Epiphany, and soon became the abbot there. Bartholomew also was left all alone, called for a certain abbot Mitrophan and took away the veil under the name of Sergius, as the day was celebrated the memory of the martyrs: Sergius and Bacchus.

After two or three years, began to flock to him the monks, and founded the monastery which took shape in 1345 as the Holy Trinity Monastery (later Trinity-Sergius Lavra), which became the second abbot Sergius (the first was in the Bartholomew Having taken monastic monk Mitrofan) and the presbyter ( from 1354).

It is associated with the name of Sergius the beginning of special reverence in Russia of the Holy Trinity. Prohibiting the taking alms, Sergei put the rule to all the monks lived by his labor, than he handed them an example. Glory to the Holy Trinity Monastery has grown rapidly - to the monastery began to address any estate, ranging from peasants, and ending with the princes, many of whom settled in the neighborhood with her and sacrifice her to their property. Thus, the first born with all the necessary dire need of deserts turned into a rich monastery. Glory seeker Sergius came even before Constantinople: The Patriarch of Constantinople Filofei sent him with a special embassy cross paramand (part of monastic robes - square cards featuring eight-pointed cross on foot fishing passion and the skull of Adam, worn by monks on the chest), schema, and the letter, in which praised him for his righteous life and gave advice to enter a monastery kin (strict obschinnozhitie). According to this advice and with the blessing of Metropolitan Alexis of Moscow Sergey entered the monastery obschinnozhitelny charter, which was subsequently adopted in many Russian monasteries. Before his death, Alexis pleaded Sergius to be his successor at the Moscow department, but he flatly refused.

Lacking any formal authority, Sergius often brought together warring among themselves princes, urging them to submit to the Grand Duke of Moscow, so that by the time of the Battle of Kulikov (1380), almost all Russian princes acknowledged the primacy of Dmitry Ivanovich (the future of the Don). According to legend, starting at this battle, the latter accompanied by the princes, nobles and the governor went to Sergius, to pray with him and receive his blessing. Blessing him, Sergius predicted his victory, salvation from death and released in march of two of its monks, and Peresvet OSLJABJA.

There is also a version (VA Kuchkin), according to a story about the blessing of Sergius Radonezhskiy Dmitry Donskoy to fight Mom belongs not to the Kulikovo battle, the battle on the river Vozha (1378) and is linked in the life of the saint with the battle of Kulikovo already Subsequently, with more large-scale event.

In addition to the Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius, Sergius founded several monasteries (the Annunciation in Kirzhach, Andronicus and Simonov in Moscow, Boris and Gleb near Rostov, the Old-Golutvin near Kolomna, George, Vysotsky, etc.). In all of these abbots of the monastery, he set his students. More than 40 monasteries were founded by them, as well as duhvonymi interlocutors St: Savoy (Savvino Storozhevsky near Zvenigorod), Ferapont (Ferapontov), Cyril (Cyril Belozersky) and many others.

Vladimir Oivin


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