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Beatniks: "beat generation" in search of freedom

August 17 2005

Now it is strange to hear, but there were times when nobody heard of hippies, nor of punk, no metal-on, much less any of the followers of hip-hop culture. It is an era of beatniks, "beat generation", whose outlook was largely borrowed later all sorts of informal.

Bitnichestvo born in the postwar years, when they met young writers Jack Kerouac, William Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg. Then they were joined by Neal Cassady. Together they formed the core of the literary group, whose work has gone counter to attitudes and boundaries of official art.

It is believed that the word "hipster" (from the English beat) came up with Kerouac. At that time, slang it meant "worn out", "tired", "battered life." In addition, the word refers to the specific beat rhythm in jazz, which is known for beatniks had a special meaning. Rather, even bop, one of jazz styles, which appeared shortly before the beat. He has changed the "worn out" to life and instilled in them such things as loneliness in the crowd and spontaneity that beatniks considered the foundation of his work. These motifs are especially noticeable in the works of Kerouac's early, such as "Underground", which called on to abandon the points in the writing, and only use spaces.

Birthplace of the forefathers of all non-formals became California. Stir constantly replenished by young, middle class, those who took a routine procedure. Drugs, marijuana beatniks , of course, dabbled in, but they did not do this cult. Jack Kerouac, for example, was very disposed to alcohol, from which he died.

However, the beatniks were not really such peaceful folks. It was a fairly aggressive ideological grouping nourished sympathy for Marxism, Russian anarchism and Trotskyism simultaneously. They were protesting U.S. foreign policy and American life. As the most radical form of rebellion against social moarli beatniks chose "unconventional" sexual orientation, which became fashionable in the circles of young intellectuals. All of this cocktail Beat thoroughly to flavor by immersion in Zen Buddhism. As a result, they were able to offer his generation is only one way to deal with society - is a departure.

And then came LSD, which the famous Ken Kesey found non-drug use and beatniks plunged into experiments with the expansion of consciousness. In the end, it all resulted in the hippie movement, which as we know, too, came upon no.

Literary and artistic movement of the opening beat influenced world culture.

Beat left behind at least three big names that have become true classics of travel: Burroughs, Kerouac and Ginsberg.

William Burroughs - the oldest and most visible. He graduated from Harvard and one of the first openly talked about his homosexuality. In 1951 he shot a gun for his wife Joan, playing the scene of William Tell. He then traveled for a long time in South America, experimenting with drugs. Nashumel his book "Naked Lunch", untranslatable into other languages and the creation of collage letter technique, popular among bohemians, including David Bowie. At the end of his life he became friends with Tom Waits, starred in the cult film "Drugstore Cowboy" and died after living 83 years in spite of the stormy life.

strong> Allen Ginsberg - graduated from Columbia University, has changed a lot of professions. It is believed that his "Sunflower Sutra" is the basis bitnicheskoy ideology. The poem "Howl" Ginsberg has led to the open persecution of homosexuals. Ginsberg has won the laurels of one of the most popular poets and died as well as Burroughs in 1997.

Jack Kerouac - graduated from Columbia University, he served some time in the Navy, where he was transfer to the reserve with suspected schizophrenia. Buddhist philosopher and free traveler, he composed his books spontaneously, on the road. The main and most notable thing Kerouac's "On the Road" was created according to bitnicheskoy ideology. He wanted to publish a book-roll, to the reader, spinning it, I felt movement. Kerouac died in 1969 from alcoholism. He was 47 years old.

Incidentally, beatniks laid the foundations of modern street language. Popular among teenagers word cool, coined it beatniks, borrowing it from the Jazz. There are a bitnichesky dictionary filled with all sorts of notions that a normal person's head would not come.

On materials Litera.Ru, Vredno.Ru, journal PLAY

See also: sXe: Straight Age - stay punk, while remaining pure

Ethnolife: night conversation with a performer of reggae and this rastamanov , guitarist Paul Yombono Sun Music (Cameroon)

Константин Дятлов

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