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Amazing Facts - July 20

July 20 2008

July 20, 1924 in Paris, was founded by the International Chess Federation - FIDE. Now celebrated as "International Day of chess."

International Organization of chess has its own flag, anthem and motto - "We are all one family." Since 1980, Chess Federation - a member of UNESCO. Until 1939 FIDE mainly engaged in organizing the World Chess Olympiad, or "Tournament Nations and the world championships among women (from 1927). Since 1950, awards the title of international grandmaster among men since 1976 - among women. Between 1947 and holds personal world championships in men, in a system which consisted of zonal and Interzonal tournaments, matches and tournaments of applicants, as well as matches for the world title.

The first president of the organization was the Dutchman Alexander Ryub in 1995 headed by FIDE president of Kalmykia, Kirsan Ilyumzhinov.

July 20, 1944 was one of the n roizvedeno attempts on the life of Adolf Hitler - "Conspiracy July 20." He was the most serious of the 35 other attempts at physical removal of the Fuhrer. It was attended by senior military officers mostly from the command of the Wehrmacht. At that moment, when Colonel Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg, the plan the conspirators, was physically eliminate Hitler and the rest, among whom were commanders of armies, and even groups of armies, intended to start a mutiny in the army.

Military aristocracy Stauffenberg Hitler called "the main parasite. He believed that a group of conspirators will be a force to save the army from defeat and the country from shame. Under the plan, "Valkyrie", developed by Stauffenberg in December 1943, after the destruction of Hitler in Berlin was to be formed by the military government, which with the help of the Wehrmacht could neutralize the SS, Gestapo, SD and the other pillars of the Nazi regime. The rank of Colonel Stauffenberg was in June 1944, and the new Chief of Staff of the Army Reserve opened his doors to the meeting in the Fuehrer's Headquarters. The day Shtaufffenberg carried in bid portfolio with a bomb. Put the briefcase under the table, under the pretext of Stauffenberg left.

However, a bomb exploded at a rate just shell-shocked the Fuhrer. Hitler survived because one of his assistants aside time away from the suitcase bomb. Stauffenberg was so sure that Hitler was dead, that, arriving in Berlin demanded that the commander of the Army Reserve Fromm trigger the plan "Valkyrie." Fromm surrendered his chief of staff.

Rebellion was quickly suppressed by the troops of the SS. Part of the conspirators committed suicide, while others, including Stauffenberg, were executed on the same day. Total in 1944 on the case on July 20 "was executed 5764 people, while in the remaining less than five months of Nazi rule in 1945, 5684. Execution of the conspirators were shooting on film, which was then demonstrated to Hitler. Conspiracy almost decapitated the top Wehrmacht, the German army by depriving many experienced military leaders.

July 20, 1987 was a record speed of pedal vehicles - the water cycle. American Steve Hegg set a record on the ring road (for a cyclist) - 20.66 km / h - in Long Beach, California, USA.

Release prepared by Max K * - based on encyclopedias and other public sources.

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