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Amazing Facts - April 7

April 7 2008
13:00

April 7, 1795, when France enacted a law that the fundamental unit of length was the meter. Initially, the value has two competing definitions: 1) the length of a pendulum with a half swing at a latitude of 45 °, equal to 1 c (in modern terms, this length is approximately 0.981 m). 2) As a sorokamillionnaya part of the Paris meridian (that is, one ten-millionth of the distance from the North Pole to the equator on the surface of the earth's ellipsoid at the longitude of Paris).

Initially, the basis was accepted the first definition. However, since the acceleration due to gravity depends on latitude and, consequently, the pendulum model not reproduce, the French Academy of Sciences in 1791 suggested that the National Assembly to determine the meter through the length of the meridian. March 30, 1791 this proposal was accepted, and April 7, 1795 National Convention passed a law on the introduction of the metric system in France and asked Commissioners, which included S. O. pendant, JL Lagrange, A. L. Lavoisier, P. -C. Laplace and other scientists to perform work on the experimental determination of units of length and weight.

The first prototype of the standard meter was made of brass in 1795. It should be noted that the unit of mass (kilogram, whose definition was based on the weight of 1 dm ³ of water), was also tied to the definition of a meter. In 1799, of an alloy of 90% platinum and 10% iridium prototype meter has been manufactured, the length of which corresponded to one sorokamillionnoy part of the Paris meridian. Subsequently, however, it became clear that because of improper accounting pole Earth compression standard was shorter at 0.2 mm, so the length of the meridian only approximately 40 000 km.

During the reign of Napoleon the metric system spread throughout Europe. In 1917 it was introduced in Russia. Only in Britain, which was not conquered by Napoleon, were the traditional measure of length: inch, foot and yard.

In 1889 he was made a more accurate international standard meter. This standard is also made of an alloy of platinum and iridium, and has a cross section of the letter «X». His copies were deposited in the countries in which the meter has been recognized as a standard unit of length. This standard is still stored at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, although more for its original purpose is not used.

The modern definition of the meter in terms of time and the speed of light was introduced in 1983: "meter - the length of the path traveled by light in vacuum (1 / 299792458) seconds.

April 7, 1969 is considered the symbolic date of birth of the Internet. It was then published in an RFC, «Request for Comments» - in a series of numbered Internet informational documents containing technical specifications and standards which are widely used in World Wide Web.

RFC format appeared in 1969 in discussing the project ARPANET. RFC 1 was published on 7 April 1969 and was called the «Host Software». The first RFC is available in print on paper in the form of ordinary letters, but since December 1969, when earned first segment of ARPANET, the documents available in electronic form. Most of the early RFC were created in the University of California, Los Angeles, and Stanford Research Institute.

From 1969 to 1998. the permanent and sole editor of RFC was Jon Postel. After his death the Internet Society (ISOC) asked the editing and publication of RFC Institute of Information Science, University of Southern California. Currently, the primary publication of the IETF RFC documents engaged under the auspices of the organization of open Internet Society - it also has the rights to the RFC.

It is noteworthy that on 4 April, but already in 1994 as the birthday of Runet.That day the organization was registered by InterNIC Russian national domain. RU.

First, this domain was the successor to the domain SU: latest from the outbreak of RU domain stopped accepting new applications, but since 2002 a free registration vozobnovilas.Rossiysky domain RU shows steady growth in the number of registrations of more than 40% per year.

National domain RU zone is under the control 8 servers domain names. About five of them located in Russia. In recent years, in proportion to the number of Internet users in Russia increased the number of sites in the Russian segment of the Internet, and hence - a growing number of domain names.

A good indicator of the Russian Internet is increasing the number registered in the RU domain. Rules for registering domain names in RU are liberal. Allowed registration of domain names by individuals, there is no ban on registration of domains by non-residents. According to the domain registry RU, over 96% of registered domains in the Russian national area - the Russians.

Release prepared by Max K * - based on encyclopedias and other public sources.

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