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"Militia of Jesus Christ" has been in nearly 800 years

December 22 2009

According to legend, December 22, 1216 Pope Honorius III approved the Order of the itinerant preachers - Dominicans. The name was taken after the founder of the Order - Spanish nobleman Dominica. Members of the Order referred to themselves as "God's dogs, and their banner depicting dogs, tearing at the body of heretics.

According to the year 2004, the Order of monks numbered 6,109 (including 4,488 priests). They serve in 622 parishes. The General Curia of the Dominicans in Rome of St. Sabina. Women's branch of the Order (Second Order) - 3724 nuns. Main areas of activity of the Dominicans - the gospel, the study of science, education, combating heresies, missionary activities.

At the head of the Order is the Grand Master. Each province is headed by a provincial prior of the Order, each monastic community - Conventual Prior. They are responsible to the General Meeting - Conventual, provincial or the general chapter. Dominican Order has a third branch - tertsiariev, people bearing the vows, but left in the world and living the spiritual life of the Order. Dominic established himself, under the name "Militia of Jesus Christ", an alliance of secular people of both sexes, to protect the church and the desire for moral perfection.

The motto of the Order - to praise, to bless, to preach "(Latin for« Laudare, Benedicere, Praedicare »). Dominicans are known Jakob Sprenger (1436-1495), one of the authors of the Handbook of inquisitors "Witches Hammer", Pope Benedict XIII (1649-1730) and Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), Italian scholar and poet, who later resigned from the Order .

December 22, 1857 in Russia were put postage stamps. The first signs of postage stamps were introduced in our country in 1845 - the so-called "stamp kuverty for city post in St. Petersburg. In 1846, the same envelopes were issued for Moscow. In addition, the St. Petersburg envelopes were also used in Moscow, Warsaw and Kazan. "Stamp kuverty" had a round stamp, testified about the payment of postage, and are the first signs of postage in Russia. In 1848 were issued stamp envelopes for a national address.

The first mark in history, known as "Black Penny" (English Penny Black), was released May 6, 1840 in the UK. "Father" postage stamp is an Englishman Rowland Hill. Following the release of the first brands in the UK postage stamps began to appear in the light and in other countries.

In 1851, to study the experience of using stamps, was sent abroad managing transportation of mail by rail, AP Charukovsky. The following year, visiting several countries and collecting lots of information, he returned to his homeland. However, innovations in the postal area prevented the Crimean War. Only in 1855 Charukovsky filed Chapter postal department VF Adlerberg project detailing the arrangements for the introduction of stamps pasted in Russia. The project was approved Nov. 12, 1856. Back in the summer of that year under the guidance of manager printing department Expeditions Storing State Papers Ya.Ya. Reichel were produced proofs of the first "stamp" makes two types: with the state coat of arms and a head of Mercury.

Marks were circular, because it was expected that it will become a kind of stamp affixed, hence the name brands - "stamp". However, these brands have not been approved.The new figure of the first Russian postage stamp rectangular created senior engraver Expeditions FM Kepler and handed it to the October 21, 1856.

A year later, in October 1857, the trial copies of the first brands Alexander II was approved for publication and royally enjoin deign to call them instead of punching stamps. The first postage stamp in Russia was 10-kopeck dignity. She had no teeth, with the national emblem in the blue oval on the background of the mantle, topped with a crown. Finally, on Dec. 22, 1857 Postal Department issued a circular on the introduction of postage stamps for general use. " On the basis of this circular stamps were introduced with effect from 1 January 1858 in the European part of Russia and the Caucasus, Transcaucasia, and Siberia on 1 March 1858. Circulation amounted to three million copies.

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