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As the great knights of the Order founded the incredibly popular banks

January 14 2010
00:05

January 14, 1119, the day of St Hilary, was founded by the Order of the Knights Templar. Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon are considered first by the founding religious military orders. The Order was founded by a small group of knights led by Hugh de Payne after the First Crusade to support the new Kingdom of Jerusalem in a hostile environment defeated Muslim neighbors, as well as to protect a number of European pilgrims who went to Jerusalem after its conquest.

One and the most important activities of the Order has been working with finances. In the Order could take out a loan at 10% - for comparison: the credit-loan funds, and Jews were given loans at 40%. That the Templars were the inventors of checks, and if the amount of the deposit is exhausted, then it can be increased with the subsequent completion of relatives. Each was equipped with a fingerprint check of a depositor. For operations with checks Order took a small tax.

Availability checks frees people from having to move precious metals (playing the role of money), now you can go on a pilgrimage to a small piece of skin in any comtur Templars get a full and coins! Thus money the property owner a check has become inaccessible to robbers, whose number is in the Middle Ages was quite large.

The Order had huge land holdings: in the middle of the XIII century, about 9000 Manoir; to 1307 about 10,500 Manoir. Manoir in the Middle Ages called the plot size of 100-200 ha, the income from which is allowed to arm a knight. Especially great was the influence of the Templars in Spain, France and England. The Order was formed in the rigid hierarchical structure with the Grand Master at the helm. They were distributed in four ranks - knights, chaplains, squires and servants. It is estimated that at the time of greatest power in the Order, there were approximately 20,000 members, and knights, and serventov.

22 September 1307 the Royal Council decided to arrest all the Templars, who were in France. Three weeks in the strictest confidence were preparing for this very difficult for the then government operations. Royal officials, commanders of military units (as well as local inquisitors) until the last moment did not know what they had to make: the orders came in sealed packets, which are allowed to open only on Friday, October 13.

The Templars were taken by surprise. The Order was convicted by the Inquisition, and many knights were burned. The process ended with the disbanding of the Order.

January 14, 1945 personnel of the 1 st Battalion 215 th Guards Rifle Regiment, 77 Guards Rifle Division have shown exemplary courage and heroism in battle on the Vistula River. For this battle was awarded the polls the entire battalion: 350 soldiers, sergeants and petty officers were awarded the most honorable soldiers of the Order - Fame, platoon commanders - Order of Alexander Nevsky, the company commanders - Order of the Red Banner, and the battalion commander a 23-year Guard, Major BN Emel'yanov Hero of the Soviet Union. The battalion became known as Battalion of Fame.

Enemy lines built solid defense to a depth of 300-500 km, relying on the water obstacles. To break our troops in the narrow sections have focused a great power. At the tips of giant wedges - reinforced infantry battalions for reconnaissance. At the 1 st Belorussian Front - 28.Including - a battalion of Guards Major Boris Emelyanov, that faced the task: attack, so that the enemy mistook them for the main force.

January 14, followed by firing a short while, the infantry rushed to the attack. Already at the first enemy positions battalion Yemelyanova seized 57 guns, one day threw the enemy on more than 20 miles, while others penetrated the defenses of 5-12 kilometers. Reconnaissance turned into a general offensive. In the breach rushed troops, 69 Army and 11 Panzer Corps, in continuous battles liberated from the invaders several Polish cities.

General Wehrmacht Mellenthin recalled: "The Russian offensive has evolved with unprecedented power and swiftness ... It is impossible to describe all that happened between the Vistula and Oder in the first months of 1945. Europe did not know anything like this since the fall of the Roman Empire. " Most fighters Battalion were 18-year-old youths ...


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