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A new type of money introduced in Russia, "Crazy Empress"

January 9 2010
00:05

January 9, 1769 by Empress Catherine II issued a manifesto on the basis of two Assignation Bank and issue bank notes - paper money. The manifesto stated that the bills are walking along with a coin and are subject to immediate exchange of coins on demand in any quantity. It was found that the issue of paper money must not exceed the cash amount of coins in banks.

The initial capital Assignation Bank amounted to 1 million rubles copper coins - 500 thousand rubles in St. Petersburg and the Moscow office. The Bank has issued the following denominations: 25, 50, 75 and 100 rubles. Money in this issue have had a primitive appearance, making it easier to falsification: banknotes in denominations of 25 rubles remade in 1975, so the decree of June 21, 1771 currency notes in denominations of 75 rubles ceased to be released and withdrawn from circulation. The size of banknotes 1769-1773 years. was 190 x 250 mm. These bills are rare and are collector's interest.

Original issue of notes was a great success, but because the bank was a copper coin, the exchange of notes was made only at her. This provision was enshrined in law by the decree of 22 January 1770 Thus badges firmly tied to a copper coin, which now became a small change actually means pennies.

January 9, 1839 is considered to be the date the invention of photography. It was then at a meeting of the Paris Academy of Sciences physicist Dominique François Arago read a full description of obtaining non-vanishing of images that conveyed the artist and inventor Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, who described it in his own honor daguerreotypes.

Generally an image using reflected from objects visible light received in ancient times and used for painting and technical work. Method, named after orthoscopic photography does not require serious optical devices. In those days we used only small holes, and sometimes cracks. Projected image on the opposite surface of these holes.

Method was improved by using optical devices to be placed on the seat hole. This served as the basis for a camera that limits the output image from the illumination of not carrying the image of light. The camera obscura was named. After the invention of the method of image capturing several inventors, the camera obscura became the prototype design of photographic apparatus. The name "Photography" has been chosen as the most harmonious of several options - just in time for the meeting of the French Academy in 1839.

Color same photo appeared in the middle of the XIX century. The first stable color photograph was taken in 1861 by James Maxwell. Initially, to produce a color image, we used three cameras mounted with color filters (red, green and blue). The resulting images allowed to reconstruct when printing a color image. Great contribution to the technology introduced Sergei Prokudin-Gorsky, who developed the technology to reduce exposure and increase the chances of duplicating the picture.

EVELOPMENT color photography was restricted by the emulsion, but the work of chemist Hermann Vogel allowed us to obtain the composition, which is sensitive to the green portion of the spectrum. In 1907, have been patented and received by the free sale of photographic plates "Autochrome the Lumiere brothers, makes it relatively easy to obtain color photographs. Alternatives to this technology have appeared only in 1930. In the XX century, when the vehicle photos are perfected, there were quite sensitive photographic materials and convenient camera, photography has evolved from a technological curiosity into a type of fine art, much akin to painting.


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