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Where did the "Lord of the Rings"?

April 15 2005

Many characters, characters, magic items described in the novel "Lord of the Rings" have their predecessors. Fans of Tolkien and his famous works will be interesting to learn about the prototypes.

"Think of a green sun easily - he wrote the great English writer JRR Tolkien. - Hard to imagine a world in which it would be natural." The famous author of "Lord of the Rings" knew what to say, in fact we owe Tolkien birth of a new literary genre - the fantasy, which, however, like all new things, has its predecessors: the medieval chivalric romances (those who moved from the mind Don Quixote Lamanchesky ) and the heroic epic.

As you know, Professor Tolkien was a major specialist in Old English philology, and was well acquainted with the mythology of the ancient Celts and Germans. It is of Irish and Welsh tales, Icelandic sagas and German epics have become the soil upon which rose the myth of Middle-earth, shook the hearts and minds of millions of people on the planet.

It would be no end to find in ancient mythology parallels with certain scenes of Tolkien, and I hope that someday this historical and philological work will be done, and we also dwell on the motif, which has become the main driving force behind the famous trilogy "The Lord of the Rings" - the history One Ring.

This sinister jewel manufactured evil lord Sauron, having invested in it much of its power. Getting to the new owner takes possession of the ring and destroys him mentally and sometimes physically. At the same time more powerful than another owner, the easier it is to subdue the evil of his soul and the more trouble he can cause to others.

The ring has a nice feature to do his master's invisible, shifting it from the world of living in a world of spirits - the motive purely Celtic. However, in the rest of the story One Ring has Norse roots. Norse mythology is replete with magical treasures, including rings. Suffice it to recall created things underground smiths - tsvergami (very similar to Tolkien dwarves) ring Draupnir - a wonderful ring of Odin, every nine nights giving rise eight more gold rings. But the similarities are purely superficial, this same mythological counterpart One Ring is, without doubt, another precious talisman - Andvarinaut, cursed ring of the Nibelungen, in his own way even more horrible and devastating for the owners than the One Ring from Tolkien.

Its history is outlined in the "Elder Edda, the Icelandic epic, rising to the German legends of the Great Migrations, begins with the fact that the divine trinity of aces: One, the god of fire and god Hoenir cunning Loki - a journey to explore the entire world. When the gods walked past one of the reservoirs, Loki, a well-aimed throw of a stone killing the otter. Arriving at a nearby village, the travelers were warned the night, requesting payment of the skins of dead animals. However, the owner, a mighty sorcerer Hreydmar learned in otter his son Otra. In anger, he put upon the gods curse that deprives them of force and then by two other sons, Fafnir and Regin, the gods took a prisoner.

Captured aces suggested sorcerer himself to appoint a ransom for his son - and he demanded so much gold, so they could fill the otter's skin and cover it from above. The difficulty was that the magic skin could greatly increase in size.

Crafty Loki has been sent to find the necessary funds.He went into the dark and damp tunnels under the mountains until he found a subterranean lake, which floated, turning pike, dwarf Andvari - dark Alva, treasured great treasures. (Very similar to the memorable Gollum, is not it?) To catch him, Loki demanded to give the treasure - and Andvari betrayed them, but tried to conceal one ring. However, the cunning trick ace fails, then Andvari prayed, asking to leave the ring, because it is more valuable than all the other treasures, taken together, as it can increase wealth. Merciless Loki did not heed the entreaties - and then Andvari in impotent rage cursed ring, saying that all of its owners suffer ignominious death. Loki is not afraid, he took the ring and also tried to conceal it under a ransom, but he, in turn, did not fool Hreydmara. Then God repeated spell Andvari making ring twice cursed.

Probably he Loki became the first victim of the ring. Anyway, he ended very badly: his antics angered the gods imprisoned Loki Hel, where he was, was crucified, was to be forever spitting in the eyes of a huge snake venom. Soon it was followed by other owners Andvarinaut.

Since the ring has come into the world and its owners were called Niflungami (Nibelungen) - dim or darkened people. Soon Hreydmar was killed by his son, Fafnir, desired rings and treasures. He hid in a cave and turned himself into a dragon to guard them.

His brother Regin, suffering from a grievance and greed, planned revenge. Instrument he had chosen his pupil Sigurd (Siegfried), the hero of the famous family Velsungov. Regine Sigurd persuaded that it requires the heart and liver Fafnir, possessing great magical power. To win Regin forged a marvelous sword Sigurd Gram from the wreckage of arms of his father Sigmund. This sword was broken once, when Sigmund was trying to reflect them a deadly blow of the spear of Odin. (Does not that seem at the history of Andrew - the sword fragment which Isildur cut off Sauron with the ring finger, then the sword was forged anew for his descendant Aragorn became king Reunited Kingdom).

The saga of Sigurd Velsungah with this sword regained his father's kingdom, and then fight the dragon Fafnir. Preparing for his teacher liver dragon, he accidentally licked his fingers - and began to understand the language of birds (the motive is quite in demand in the myths and fairy tales), from which the chatter, and learned that Regin planned to murder in order to assign a treasure. Sigurd then killed himself Regina. So everyone who was directly involved in the robbery Andvari, went to the realm of the dead - Hel. But the ring continued its terrible work.

Dying, Fafnir not hidden history of the curse, but Sigurd, or did not take his words seriously, or (as Tolkien Isildur) was already in the power of charms ring, but he arrogated to himself and terrible treasure, and other treasures.

On the road from the Dragon's Lair Sigurd came into the yard, surrounded by a wall of flame. Great hero bravely overcame this obstacle and sees a beautiful sleeping woman, dressed in battle armor. When he took off her hat and coat of mail, she awoke from a dream. It turned out that it was a Valkyrie (maiden-warrior) named Bryunhild that one for disobedience plunged into a magical sleep, and in addition, predicted that she would marry, thus becoming an ordinary woman. Sigurd fell in love with a great warrior and became engaged to her, gave as a pledge of love ring Andvari. Their love affair was born a daughter named Aslaug.

But in place of Sigurd could not sit still, and he went on, in Power Franks, the court of King Gjuki, who was then preparing to fight the Burgundians.Gjuki needed an ally such as Sigurd, and he opoiv hero drink oblivion, cooked by his wife - a witch Grimmhild, married him to his daughter Gudrun, and his sons, Gunnar and Sigurd Heagney is twinned. He helped the new family in the war, and all would have gone well, but Gunnar thought up to woo Bryunnhild inviting Sigurd matchmaker.

However, win the hand of the Valkyries was not easy, because for this it was necessary to pass the test - gallop through a ring of fire surrounding her yard. Gunnar, it failed - and had to Sigurd, having his face again to overcome a wall of fire, and then share the bed with Bryunhild. True, there is, according to an agreement with Gunnar, they shared a drawn sword. However, Sigurd saw the damn ring Andvari - and he remembered everything.

These are the predecessors of the characters were "The Lord of the Rings."


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