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Eiffel tower sold ... twice to "scrap"!

March 31 2009
00:05

March 31, 1889 in Paris, the official opening of the famous Eiffel Tower. During the opening ceremony of the French flag at the top of the tower erected a personal designer of the tower - the engineer Gustave Eiffel. Construction were 300 workers - they managed to challenge the two and a small year - from January 28, 1887 on March 31, 1889 Such a record time of erection drawings provided extremely high quality, which indicate the exact dimensions of more than 12,000 metal parts. In total, the tower was used 2.5 million rivets - the creators of buildings not used welding. Grand design turned out - the total weight it was 7300 tons. During storms, the tower vibrations do not exceed 15 cm in the tower are stairs (1792 steps) and an elevator. Its height with the antenna is 320.75 meters. With over 40 years, the Eiffel Tower was the highest building in the world - nearly 2 times higher than the tallest buildings in the world at that time, the Pyramid of Cheops 137 m, 156 m Cologne Cathedral Ulm Cathedral and 161 m, while in 1930 it is not surpassed skyscraper Chrysler Building in New York.

The tower was built on the Champ de Mars in front of the Jena Bridge. It is noteworthy that this symbol of Paris was conceived only as a temporary structure - a tower served as the entrance arch of the Paris World Exhibition in 1889. After an exhibition of the planned demolition of the tower saved radio antenna mounted on its top - the era of radio and the building found a new use.

Of course, for more than a century, one of the main attractions of Paris has acquired a mass of legends and stories. For example, in 1925 the scammer Victor Lustig twice managed to sell the Eiffel Tower for scrap - with false documents. The painting of the tower every time takes 57 tons of paint, which requires renewal every 7 years. Strong effect on the tower and the sun: the side facing the sun, expanding from the heat so that the top of the structure deviates in the direction of 18 cm in general, the Eiffel Tower is the most visited attraction in the world: in 2006 the tower was visited by 6719200 people and its history - 200 million people.

March 31, 1896 in the U.S. was patented zipper. Did it its inventor - Whitcomb Judson. He created the first prototype of the "lightning" (in English.: «Zipper»), but the device it was very difficult to manufacture and very unreliable to use. Clasp consists of two textile ribbons, which are fixed-reaching in a checkerboard pattern plastic or metal links (in the form of separate teeth or rings continuous spiral forming units). Connection or disconnection of the halves is performed using the lock (the slider), sliding on the tapes. Distinguish split and one-piece zipper, and there are also vodogazonepronitsaemye lightning, intended for tight joint tissue and other materials.

After several attempts to sell the development and, in fact, bankruptcy, Judson took the partners are two Americans - Harry Earl and Louis Walker. Walker brought to the work of another American engineer Gideon Sundbeka Swedish origin - and it was he, after several years of searching, in 1913 and has developed a new version of the zipper and the technology of its production. The introduction of fasteners was much longer and painful than the development of a "lightning" - due to mistrust on the part of manufacturers, remember the first bad experience. Over time, "lightning" has proved its reliability and adaptability, and by 1923 was widely spread around the world - in virtually the form in which we know it.


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