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Zip "Lightning" was born out of spite bankruptcies, hardship and lack of confidence

April 29 2009
00:05

April 29, 1913 has been patented zipper - one of the key elements of modern clothing and footwear. Right to "zipper" designed emigrated to America, a Swedish electrical engineer Gideon Sundbek, and initially this kind of clasp did Whitcomb Judson. It was he who created the first prototype of the zipper, but its design was very complicated to manufacture and very unreliable to use.

After attempts to sell the development and, in fact, bankruptcy, Judson took the partners are two Americans - Harry Earl and Louis Walker. It was Walker, and attracted to the work of an engineer Sundbeka - and he, after several years of searching, in 1913 and has developed a new version of the zipper and the technology of its production.

Clasp consists of two textile ribbons, which are fixed-reaching in a checkerboard pattern plastic or metal links (in the form of separate teeth or rings continuous spiral forming units). Connection or disconnection of the halves is performed using the lock (the slider), sliding on the tapes. Distinguish split and one-piece zipper, and there are also vodogazonepronitsaemye lightning, intended for tight joint tissue and other materials.

The introduction of fasteners was much longer and painful than the development of a "lightning" - due to mistrust on the part of manufacturers, remember the first bad experience. Over time, "lightning" has proved its reliability and adaptability, and by 1923 was widely spread around the world - almost, as we know it now.

April 29, 2000, Germany gave Russia the fragments of the legendary Amber Room. This treasure was brought as a gift to the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm I to Russian Emperor Peter I. Peter praised the Present, Amber Room, and packed with great caution was taken to St. Petersburg in 1717. In 1743 Empress Elizabeth asked the foreman, Alexander Martelli, under the supervision of chief architect Rastrelli to "fix" the office - so he became famous Amber Room of Catherine Palace in Tsarskoe Selo.

At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War museum treasures of Catherine Palace were taken in Novosibirsk, but the Amber Room have decided not to touch it - because of its fragility - and made its preservation in place. Nazis robbed Catherine Palace, was abducted and taken to the treasure. From 1942 to the spring of 1944 she was put up for review at the Royal Castle Koenigsberg, but after the storming of the city by Soviet troops in April 1945, the Amber Room had disappeared. Major versions of the fate of the treasures are the following:

1. The room was burnt by fire, caused by the fault of Soviet soldiers stormed Konigsberg. 2. The room was hidden by the German troops on the territory of Koenigsberg and is still there. 3. The room was evacuated from Königsberg, and subsequently appeared in one of the so far not found caches in Germany, Austria, Poland or the Czech Republic. 4. Cache was on the territory occupied by the Allies after the war and was discovered by special units of the American army, engaged in searching for stolen Nazi art, after which the room was secretly taken to the U.S., where falling into the hands of private collectors. 5. The Nazis managed to smuggle the Amber Room in South America, and it is still in the hands of the descendants of Nazis who escaped after the defeat of the Third Reich.

Likely that the Amber Room still lost - or the storming of Königsberg, or later - after a long stay in a completely improper storage conditions. Found the same and given to Russia fragments finish, most likely, were simply stolen by rogue German soldiers.Now fully restored Amber Room in old paintings and drawings - it was presented to the public for the 300-year anniversary of St. Petersburg.


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