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Ruby stars of the Kremlin still have no analogues in the world

August 23 2009

August 23, 1935 on the towers of the Kremlin have been installed the first stars (manufactured in the Donbass). The stars were replaced by imperial eagles and became symbols of the Soviet era. The first stars were made of high-alloy stainless steel and red copper laid out Ural gems hammer and sickle emblems. They were covered with gold thickness from 18 to 20 microns.

However, these first stars were long adorned the towers of the Kremlin. One year later, under the influence of precipitation faded Ural gems, plus they do not fully fit into the architectural ensemble of the Kremlin because of the large size. Therefore, in May 1937 it was decided to establish a new star - glowing, ruby. Then the four towers of the stars was added one more - The Water Supplying Tower.

At the base of each star, whose weight is almost a ton, equipped with special bearings, so they, in spite of the severity, could turn like a weathercock. They are not afraid of rust and a hurricane, because the "rim" of stars is made of special stainless steel.

In 1980, electric winches have been installed to replace the bulbs and installation of equipment, but the underlying mechanisms remain the same - a sample of 1937. Each of the five stars have double glazing: the inner glass of milk, which are well scatter light, and external - from ruby, thickness 6.7 mm. Several years ago, the ruby stars were once again subjected to restoration - they replaced the cracked glass.

Mullets Kremlin luminaries not face power cuts, because their energy is produced independently. Lamps for the Kremlin stars also are unique. They are designed at the Moscow Electrical Plant. Power of three - the Spassky, St. Nicholas and Trinity Towers - 5000 watts and 3700 watts - on Borovitskaya and Water Supplying Tower. Each mount the two filaments, which are parallel. When burnout one lamp continues to burn, and the control unit receives a signal malfunction.

Central alarm monitoring and control of ventilation stars in Trinity Tower of the Kremlin. There's the most modern equipment. Every day, twice a day, visually check the lamp, as well as by switching their fans blowing. To protect the stars from overheating, experts have developed a special ventilation system: it consists of a filter to clean the air and two fans, one of which is reserved.

As recognized experts, the most difficult is the work of servicing the star is on the Spassky tower. Lifting equipment in the construction cradle has very carefully, because the tower accommodates chimes. Wash star, usually every five years. Every month to maintain reliable operation of the equipment by which the Kremlin stars shine, conducts routine maintenance work, more serious - about once every eight years.

August 23, 1572 in France Catholics massacred Huguenots. Night of August 24 (St. Bartholomew's Day) was named Bartholomew. Huguenots in France called the Protestant Calvinists. According to Saint-Germain world, they have partial freedom, and Admiral Coligny was included in the royal council. The Government of Charles IX and Queen Mother Catherine de 'Medici, wishing to hold together the world insisted on the marriage chapter Calvinist Henry of Navarre (future Henry IV) and Marguerite de Valois, sister of the king. On marriage to the French capital brought together the cream of the Calvinistic aristocracy.

In Paris, there were rumors about Huguenot conspiracy and plans to ruin the Catholic city.Preachers attributed Huguenots responsible for the outbreak of civil wars, saw them as servants of the Antichrist, believed that the indulgence of heresy, God will punish France. Magnificent wedding on August 18 on the background of general poverty has increased resentment of the people. August 22 at the Admiral Coligny, was attempted. Among the Huguenots have been calls to prepare for a new war.

To avoid a civil war, Catherine de Medici persuaded the king to remove the most dangerous Huguenots. The Paris municipality on August 23 was ordered to close the door and alert the city militia. House of the Huguenots in the city were marked by white crosses. On the night of August 24, was killed Coligny, the sound of alarm bell started the destruction of the Protestants-Calvinists.

A week in Paris reigned violence: killing not only the nobles had come, but local residents suspected of sympathizing with the Huguenots, sparing neither women nor children. King attempts to restore order proved futile: the soldiers and city police mingled with the common people, killing and looting, even those whom the king put under protection. During Vorfolomeevskoy nights in Paris and several other French cities were destroyed for various information from 3 to 30 thousand people, and the phrase "St. Bartholomew's Night" became a household word to refer to the organized mass murder.

August 23, 1986 was made an unusual record for skydiving. Englishwoman Sylvia Brett made a jump in aircraft Grenfilde, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom, aged 80 years and 166 days. Extremals-old woman was immediately entered in the Guinness Book of Records.

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