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A student came up with "intercity trolley to the south"

April 13 2009

April 13, 1902 (March 31 Old Style) in St. Petersburg was tested first in Russia trolley. The car is a hybrid between a tram and omnibus, was produced by P. Frese.

In general, the idea of the device trackless trolley was first implemented in Germany, Siemens-Halske, built in 1882 trolley line in the suburb of Berlin - Spandau. In 1911 in Europe, operated 33 routes with a total length of 200 km, which employed over one hundred cars. In Russia in 1902, in the courtyard of the St. Petersburg plant Frese and K °, held the test of commercial vehicles, linked to mains flexible cable. Frese had a car built by the French firm's patents, "Lombard-Guérin. This cart could carry a weight of 50 pounds. The public liked the idea, and in the same year, the St. Petersburg student VP Shubersky proposed to equip the electric cars highway Novorossiysk - Sukhumi - "not to smoky" vehicles shuttled between the resorts.

Your project a student thought to the smallest detail, providing economic, institutional, financial and technical calculations, as well as environmental benefits of this mode of transport. In Moscow, during the summer, most residents chose to move to the problem, for example, in Kuskovo and Tsarina. The problem was in the way of transportation to these areas, and electric cars were for a city of great interest. If it were not for the Russian-Japanese war, which began in 1904, not a revolution and ensuing World War and the Civil War, it is likely that trolley bus in Moscow, would have appeared two decades earlier. Modern development of trolleybus traffic began in 1933 when Moscow became the first home run machine LK-1. On 1 January 1941 the country was already 900 trolleybuses in 1976 - 21,000; their share in 146 cities of the USSR accounted for more than 17 percent of passenger traffic.

Today trolleys are used for passenger transportation in big cities. They are easier on the device and service than buses, and start their engines in the cold season is not a problem. But most importantly - trolleybus less noisy and does not pollute the atmosphere of cities.

April 13, 1960 in the club of nuclear powers "France entered. The first nuclear test - the explosion in the Sahara desert - were held successfully and the country became the fourth nuclear power in the world - after the Soviet Union, the USA and the UK. Exploded in the day unit, according to tradition, was unique own name - "Blue Jerboa; his power of TNT equivalent of 60 kilotons.

In 1963, all "nuclear" and many "non-nuclear" countries signed a treaty on the limitation of nuclear weapon tests by which pledged to refrain from explosions in the atmosphere, underwater and in outer space, but permitted underground tests. Total French military conducted 210 tests - mostly in the Reggane and Ecker (Algeria) and Morurua atoll in French Polynesia, while the U.S. only tests conducted in 1054, and the USSR - 715.

Documented it is known that France continued to ground tests until 1974, and China - until 1980. In our country the last underground nuclear test was conducted in 1990, Great Britain - in 1991, the United States - in 1992.

After the adoption of the treaty on the complete prohibition of nuclear tests in 1996, these countries have pledged not to resume nuclear tests.Have not signed the treaty, India and Pakistan conducted nuclear tests last in 1998, and according to some reports, October 9, 2006 to conduct a nuclear test North Korea said. Speaking of the power produced by explosions, we note that the most powerful French bomb ("Canopus") had a force of 2.6 megatons (explosion on Aug. 24, 1968), while the U.S. experienced a 15 megatons ("Castle Bravo", March 1, 1954), and USSR in general set a world record October 31, 1961 by testing at Novaya Zemlya legendary "King-bomb with a TNT equivalent of 58 megatons!

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