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Amazing Facts - December 12

December 12 2008

December 12, 1913 in Florence, was found by the legendary painting of Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" ("La Gioconda") - after her kidnapping, three years earlier. A masterpiece stolen from the Louvre Museum Italian Vincenzo Perugia, who worked at the museum carpenter. He just made a picture from the gallery, put it under your clothes. Famous painting they found only in 1913, when the thief tried to sell her a collector. Prior to this masterpiece by Leonardo kept in a suitcase with a false bottom. Deed attacker explained by the fact that wished to return to Italy now, illegally exported by Napoleon Bonaparte. During this time, "Mona Lisa" did not leave the covers of newspapers and magazines around the world. It is not surprising that the "Mona Lisa" copied more than any other paintings. Cloth Leonardo became an object of worship as a masterpiece of world classics.

"Mona Lisa" was created between 1503 and 1506 years and finalized in 1510. It is still unclear exactly who was posing a great master. Order at the picture the artist received from Francesco del Giocondo, a Florentine silk merchant, and most historians and art historians believe that the portrait depicts Gherardino Lisa, the wife of Giocondo, ordered the portrait to commemorate the birth of their second son, which was born in December 1502. Nevertheless, for some 500 years, do not cease arguing about who is actually depicted in this famous painting.

This portrait - a superb example of Leonard's favorite technique, the so-called Sfumato - "hazy chiaroscuro, gentle demi-soft range of tones, which seemed slightly blurred and smoothly into one another. In this case, Leonardo stands corners of the mouth and eyes with such precision and grace that the picture acquires a truly fantastic quality.

Some researchers argue that the picture - self-portrait of Leonardo himself, who gave their appearance feminine traits or characteristics of a hermaphrodite. And indeed, if the image of Mona Lisa to remove the hair, you get strange asexual person. This hypothesis was confirmed work done by independent researchers - Lillian Schwartz of the laboratory at Bell Labs and Digby Quest of the London Clinic Mawdsley, confirmed the hypothesis that Leonardo could have the image of the Mona Lisa to represent himself. The researchers compared using special computer programs "Mona Lisa" and the self-portrait of Leonardo's, made when he was already in advanced age. The result was amazing. "Mona Lisa" was almost a mirror image of the face of the great master. Almost all of the features perfectly matched, including the nose, lips and eyes. Mystery to this day surrounding the stranger, the Louvre attracts millions of visitors annually.

December 12, 1915 in Germany was carried out test flight of the world's first all-metal aircraft - fighter Junkers »J-1. German engineer and entrepreneur, Hugo Junkers was one of the pioneers of metal aircraft. The first all-metal aircraft Junkers J-1, later nicknamed "tin donkey", was established by the beginning of World War I, and therefore the literature is sometimes possible to read that she inspired the creation of all-metal Junkers aircraft. In reality, the project was ready much earlier, but work on its implementation began in spring 1914.

J-1 was made of sheet metal thickness from 0.5 to 1 mm with an arc and spot welding. Takeoff weight it reached 1080 kg. Wing span - 12.95 m Length - 8.62 m Wing area - 24,6 m2. In December 1915 the first "tin donkey" was brought to a military airfield in Deberits.Submitted by the military department unusual monoplane caused bewilderment. Nobody could believe that "this thing" fly. Instead of the long run, which was calculated by selecting the runway, the car pulled away from the earth at the same distance as a conventional airplane. Do not even believe that such a heavy machine now weighed nothing and flew. During the flights, the J-1 showed that his run is less than 200 m flight altitude reaches 900 meters and the speed of the engine Daimler-Mercedes, 120 hp is 170 km / h. In general, despite the satisfactory performance characteristics, the world's first all-metal aircraft did not meet military essential requirements: rate of climb and maneuverability, and its payload does not exceed 110 kg.

December 12, 1955 was issued the largest in the history of the testament of cash money. It happened in the U.S.: 500 million dollars was bequeathed to New York by the Ford Foundation in favor of the 4157 educational and other institutions of America.

Release prepared by Max K * - based on encyclopedias and other public sources.

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