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Amazing Facts - February 11

February 11 2009

February 11, 1720 on the orders of Peter I of Russia started work on the world's first submarine. Admiralty Board decided: "peasant Efim Nikonov sent to the office of Major-General Golovin and enjoin the exemplary vessel to do ..." Earlier, in 1718 the farmer village near Moscow Pokrovskoye-Rubtsovo, carpenter breech shipyard Nikonov gave the king a petition to build a ship of war, which "will go in the water hiding" approach to the enemy ships "at the bottom" and "of the projectile hammer ships, at least ten or twenty."

The tests took place in the spring of 1724 - in the presence of Peter I, admirals, captains-ranking people, and humble fellows. The world's first submarine, built of wood, was launched and sunk to a depth of 3-4 meters. However, from a blow on the ground were damaged wooden bottom, and the vessel was allowed to flow. And the boat and managed to rescue the inventor, the emperor ordered Nikonov ukrepit corpus and ordered that he be "no embarrassment to not put the blame." Work continued for another four years, but after Peter's death to complete them and failed.

February 11, 1922 the Canadian scientist Frederick Grant Banting and his colleagues announced the discovery of insulin - medicines to treat diabetes. Pursuing research in the laboratory of John MacLeod at the University of Toronto, Frederick Banting and Charles Best isolated from the pancreas of a substance (later identified that included insulin), which lowers blood glucose levels in dogs with artificially created with diabetes. In 1922, doctors have injected an extract of the pancreas first patient - fourteen L. Thompson, who suffers from diabetes, and thus saved his life. In 1923, James Kollip proposed a method for purification of the extract obtained from pancreatic cancer, which later made it possible to allocate from the pancreases of pigs and cattle, the active extracts, allowing to obtain visible results. In 1923, Banting and Macleod for the discovery of insulin, received the Nobel Prize in medicine.

Later, in 1926, and Dzh.Abel V.Dyu-Vigneault isolated insulin in crystalline form. Frederick Sanger completely deciphered the structure of the amino acid hormone, (1949-1954 years) and in 1958 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for their efforts in deciphering the structure of proteins, and most importantly - insulin. In 1963 he was received by an artificially created insulin. The very first artificial insulin is suitable for people who had been endorsed by experts only in 1982.

February 11, 1993 was the first time the World Day of the patient. It was established May 13, 1992 Pope John Paul II to draw attention to the sick and needy. In a special message to the Pope stated that the annual celebration for the World the patient has a purpose: to give the feel of many medical staff members of Catholic organizations, believers, all civil society need to provide better care for the sick and infirm, to ease their plight.

World Day of patient notes on the day of Our Lady of Lourdes. According to legend, in 1858, in Lourdes (France), 14-year-old shepherdess Bernadette Soubirous was the Virgin Mary, which later healed the suffering, becoming thereby the symbol of savior of the patients. Since then, it is believed that water from the springs Lourdes has a miraculous power to cure even hopeless cases. In Lourdes, even settled a group of doctors who are trying to explain such cases.Religious organizations in the day gave the hospital donations and medicines, is carried out visits to the hospital.

Release prepared by Max K * - based on encyclopedias and other public sources.

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