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Amazing Facts - December 4

December 4 2008

December 4, 1707 in Moscow, opened the first military hospital, which was the first public medical institution in Russia. "Moscow goshpital was founded May 25, 1706 in Lefortovo. The decree of Peter I read: "Build goshpital for Yauza river, against the German settlement, in a decent place to treat sick people ..." December 4 (November 21 st. Art.) Hospital in 1707 received its first patients. At the same time at the hospital opened Russia's first medical-surgical School, more than a century properly prepared the healers "of natural Russians."

Initially, hospital consisted of one stone building with a house church of the Resurrection, and three dozen wooden "parlor" that housed the anatomical theater, house alchemist, chemist, rooms for students, student, accommodation for the sick. Nearby was defeated botanical garden, where medicinal plants were grown. The main building was completed octagonal wooden dome, topped with a carved gilt statue of Mercy. The hospital even had its own theater, which forces students of the Medical-Surgical School staged the first Russian plays and interludes. The main building of the hospital, surviving, built in 1798-1802 on the project by Ivan Egotov.

Hospital struggling with an epidemic of plague in 1770-1771. Then spent the first demonstration operation under general anesthesia Pirogov, the outstanding physicians Shchepin, Samoilovich, Mukhin, Herzen, Sklifosovsky, Pletnev, Yudin, Burdenko. In the War of 1812, he received more than 17 thousand wounded and sick in the First World War - about 400,000, was active during the Great Patriotic War.

In 1907 the hospital received the name "Moscow General of Emperor Peter I the military hospital" with an award for staff insignia monograms «PP» (Petrus Primus). And in December 1918 by decision of the executive committee of the Moscow City Council, he became the first communist Krasnogvardeiskiy military hospital in 1944 - the main military hospital of the Red Army. In 1946 the hospital was named NN Burdenko. Now the Main Military Clinical Hospital named after Academician NN Burdenko - a powerful multi-facility. Over 300 years in the hospital have treated nearly 4 million people.

December 4, 1948 staff of the Energy Institute of the USSR Isaac Brook and Bashir Rameev received an inventor's certificate in digital electronic computers - the first recorded document concerning the development of computer technology in our country. Isaac S. Brook after Bauman in 1925 was in the midst of implementing the plan GOERLO and for many years participated in the development and introduction of new designs of induction motors, the field of sustainable energy systems and the theoretical calculation modes powerful energy devices. In 1939 he built analog computers - what the West calls the "differential analyzer, Bush" greatly improved it, designed a series of models, including fully electronic analog computer EDA (1947), allows us to solve differential equations to 20-th order . As Lebedev in Russia, Atanasov in the U.S. and many other scientists around the world, Brooke through the study of analog computers gradually come to a conclusion about the necessity of designing digital computer. Bashir Iskandarovich frame in the 1940th year, got a job as a technician in the Central Research Institute of Communications. In early 1947, listening to the transfer of "BBC", Rameev learned that the U.S. created the ENIAC computer, and felt an urge to do this then new field of science and technology.In May of 1948 was adopted as a design engineer in the Laboratory of electrical Henin, led by Brooke.

In August 1948 Brook, together with his staff presented the draft, and December 4, 1948 State Committee of the Council of Ministers on the implementation of advanced technology in the economy has registered under the number 10475 invention IS Brooke and BI Rameev digital electronic computer.

Brooke's idea was to open computer access to all areas where needed digital computers, but the problem did not require a record performance, for example, research institutes and design bureaus. Relatively small machines can be placed in the normal operating room, do not hesitate employees gigantic size, power consumption and special facilities for cooling - time that is exactly what has been realized.

December 4, 1958 from the airport to Las Vegas on airplane Cessna 172 took off, Bob Timm and John Cook. The pilot is in the air 64 days, occasionally performing in-flight refueling. Milk yield to each other, February 7, 1959 they landed and entered the Guinness Book of Records.

December 4, 1996 with the American launch site at Cape Canaveral launched rocket "Delta 2" that brought in 1997 on the surface of Mars Research unit «Pathfinder» - «The Pathfinder." This probe did not have the orbital module - It entered the atmosphere of July 4, 1997 in plain Hrisa. The ambient temperature was about -53 ° C. After uncovering the parachute for about 8 seconds before it hit the surface around the unit swelled cans and a probe into a great "inflatable ball, which hit the ground at a speed of 90 mph and bounced on it a few times until it stopped.

July 5 rover pulled off the lander and July 6, started to scientific experiments (in particular, the study of the nearest stone). July 6 was also transferred to the circular panorama, taken with the camera capsule. In what the rover has studied several stones, and lander to measure parameters of wind, temperature, and took pictures.

September 27, 1997 was the last communication session with the device (the signal that contains no data, could take until October 7, and attempts to establish communication with the device were made prior to March 1998). Total was transferred 16,5 thousand shots the camera of the lander and 550 images the rover's cameras, were 15 tests of rocks. Scientific results of the mission provided additional confirmation of the hypothesis that Mars once had a "wet and warm."

Release prepared by Max K * - based on encyclopedias and other public sources.

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