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Book of Sherlock Holmes - "Encyclopedia blunders"

December 1 2009

December 1, 1887 in the UK was published "A Study in Scarlet" - so the world learned about the famous British detective Sherlock Holmes.

This literary character created by writer Arthur Conan Doyle, on the right has long ranked among the most famous heroes of the detective genre. A total of Sherlock Holmes appears in 56 stories and 4 novels by Arthur Conan Doyle. In most cases the story is on behalf of a friend and teammate of Holmes - Doctor Watson.

Conan Doyle himself believed the stories about Sherlock Holmes "pap." In addition, it galling that readers prefer stories about Holmes, then, as Conan Doyle considered himself first and foremost a great writer of historical romance. In the end, the writer has decided to discontinue the detective story, removing the popular literary character in a battle with the treacherous Professor Moriarty (the leader of the British mafia) in Reyhenbahskogo waterfall. However, the perturbed flow of letters of readers, among whom were members of the royal family, led the writer to "revive" the famous detective.

Approximate year of birth of Sherlock Holmes - the 1854th, ie investigator met with Dr. John Watson at the age of about 27 years. According to the book, the detective and his partner lived on Baker Street, 221-b, but in fact houses with that number on the real Baker Street has never been - but now at this address is the Sherlock Holmes Museum.

Another interesting fact is that a careful reading of books about Holmes, the famous author of the deductive method, the detective who finds and a needle in a haystack, found so many inaccuracies, inconsistencies and other blunders that just amazed, but readers willing to forgive this Conan Doyle.

We all know the classic image of the great detective, created a wonderful actor Vasily Livanov, and the British themselves declared it the best in the world, however, the very first performer as Sherlock Holmes on the Russian stage was actor Suvorin Theatre in St. Petersburg, Boris Glagolin (Gusev).

December 1, 1903 the U.S. went out on the screens of the world's first western - "The Great Train Robbery." Westerns (films about cowboys) is very typical for the U.S. and include film, television, literature, painting and other visual arts. Action in westerns mainly occurs in the second half of the XIX century in the Wild West - the future of western U.S. states, as well as in Western Canada and Mexico. The first film of this genre took director Edwin Porter in the studio of the famous Thomas Edison. The film is only 12 minutes - but those moments furor in world cinema.

The basis of this film is the story by Scott Marble, written in 1896. However, the scenario is based on real events, later than the book Marble. August 29, 1900, four offenders from the gang of "Hole in the Wall" by the legendary hero of many subsequent Westerns Butch Cassidy (aka Robert LeRoy Parker) attacked a train № 3 "Union Pacific" passing Teybl Rock in Wyoming. The bandits forced the conductor to unhook coaches, then blew up the safe in the mail car and fled, carrying $ 5000 in cash.

December 1, 1958 held a unique boxing bout: American Lamarstrong style = "mso-bidi-font-weight: normal;"> Clark in one night knocked out six opponents in a row, speaking at Bingham, Utah, USA. Overall, Clark scored 44 knockout wins in a row - from 1958 to January 11, 1960.

December 1, 1987 construction began on the famous tunnel between Britain and France - in the English Channel. The idea of building a tunnel under the Strait occurred in the late XVIII - early XIX century. Expressed its French engineer Albert Mathieu-Favier. According to the project, the tunnel was lighted by oil lamps, and it must have been traveling horse-drawn carriages. Ventilation envisaged vents leading to the sea surface. In those days, the construction cost was estimated at 1 million pounds sterling (approximately 66.4 million at 2005 prices).

This project was proposed by Napoleon at the conclusion of a peace treaty between England and France, however due to the war, he remained on paper. Later, both the English and French Parliament adopted a resolution on the construction of the tunnel. In 1876 he conducted geological work, and October 21 in the French city Sangatt began digging a tunnel from my end. However, 18 March 1883, construction was halted because the British feared that the finished tunnel could cause a possible lung invasion of the enemy to the UK. By this time it was dug in 2026 meters on the British side and 1829 meters - with the French.

In 1922, workers began to bore the tunnel at Folkestone. After 128 meters were completed, for political reasons, the project was again halted. After the Second World War the idea of building the tunnel was again revived. In 1957 formed the study group, which in 1960 recommended in its report to dig the two main tunnels and a service between them.

In 1984, the governments of Britain and France have concluded that without additional funds to attract private construction is impossible. Of the four proposed plan has been chosen, the most similar to the project in 1973. January 20, 1986 it was published. 12 February the two governments signed an agreement for the construction of a tunnel in the Canterbury and ratified it in 1987.

On the tunnel project was to connect the two cities - Calais to Folkestone and the French side with the British (this path is longer than the shortest possible). Supposed to dig in an easily pliable Cretaceous geological layer, so the tunnel would run deeper than expected - about 50 feet below the bottom of the strait, and the southern part must lie deeper than the North. Because of this, the French first had to build a shaft diameter of 50 meters and a depth of 60 meters to reach the sandstone.

For tunnel construction have been developed 11 special TBM with a rotor diameter of 8 meters. During operation the rotor rotates with a frequency of 2-3 rpm. During operation while building the wall with concrete segments forming a barrel cover tunnel polutorametrovy ring. The installation of each ring required an average of 50 minutes. British cars on average per week broke through about 150 meters, while the French - 110 because of the different designs of machines and facilities for drilling. Once, when the car met near the middle of the tunnel (the British dug more than half), the French machine was dismantled and removed, and the British took away from the main tunnel and left in the stones.

rimechatelno that to both ends meet in one place, we used laser positioning system. With this system, the two sides met at the target point on Dec. 1, 1990 at a depth of 40 m from the bottom of the strait. The error was only 358 mm by 58 mm horizontally and vertically. Total British side has been done 84 km of tunnels, but the French - 69 km. Last meters tunnel drillers British and French have done by hand - using pickaxes and shovels. During construction were seized 8 million cubic meters of rock.

Each party has disposed of its part in their own way. The French simply mixed with ground water and the resulting slurry is brought back into the sea. And from the rock, excavated by the British, the British bank was formed by an artificial promontory Shakespeare's area 90 acres (36 hectares), which was later constructed the park. The project was completed in seven years by 13,000 workers and engineers.

6 May 1994 Eurotunnel was inaugurated on the leaders of States Parties - Queen Elizabeth II and French President Francois Mitterrand.

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